Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking

Document identifier: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-76924
Access full text here:10.1371/journal.pone.0189299
Keyword: Social Sciences, Psychology, Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology), Samhällsvetenskap, Psykologi, Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi), Engineering and Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics, Teknik och teknologier, Maskinteknik, Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi, Bilingualism, Cognition, Memory
Publication year: 2017
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Abstract:

An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40–65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

Authors

Daniel Eriksson Sörman

Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
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Maria Josefsson

Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
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John Marsh

School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom
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Patrik Hansson

Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
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Jessica Körning-Ljungberg

Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
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