Assessment of the LeadCare® Plus for Use on Scandinavian Brown Bears (Ursus arctos)

Document identifier: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-76268
Access full text here:10.3389/fvets.2019.00285
Keyword: Natural Sciences, Earth and Related Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Naturvetenskap, Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap, Geokemi, Blood lead, Lead exposure, Ursus, Anodic stripping voltammetry, Pb, Tillämpad geokemi, Applied Geochemistry
Publication year: 2019
Relevant Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):
SDG 3 Good health and wellbeingSDG 11 Sustainable cities and communities
The SDG label(s) above have been assigned by OSDG.ai

Abstract:

Lead (Pb) exposure is associated with adverse health effects in both humans and wildlife. Blood lead levels (BLL) of sentinel wildlife species can be used to monitor environmental lead exposure and ecosystem health. BLL analyzers, such as the LeadCare (R), are validated for use in humans, assessed for use in some avian species and cattle, and are increasingly being used on wildlife to monitor lead exposure. The LeadCare (R) analyzers use a technique called anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Species-specific conversion equations have been proposed to approximate the levels found with gold standard measuring methods such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) because the ASV method has been shown to underestimate BLL in some species. In this study we assessed the LeadCare (R) Plus (LCP) for use on Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos). LCP measurements were correlated with ICP-MS with a Bland-Altman analyzed bias of 16.3-22.5%, showing a consistent overestimation of BLL analyzed with LCP. Based on this analysis we provide conversion equations for calculating ICP-MS BLL based on the LCP results in Scandinavian brown bears. Our study shows that the LeadCare (R) Plus can be used for monitoring of lead exposure by approximating gold standard levels using conversion equations. This enables comparison with other gold standard measured BLL within the observed range of this study (38.20-174.00 mu g/L). Our study also found that Scandinavian brown bears are highly exposed to environmental lead.

Authors

Amanda H. Boesen

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology, Agricultural Sciences and Biotechnology, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway
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Alexandra Thiel

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology, Agricultural Sciences and Biotechnology, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway
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Boris Fuchs

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology, Agricultural Sciences and Biotechnology, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway
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Alina L. Evans

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology, Agricultural Sciences and Biotechnology, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway
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Mads F. Bertelsen

Center for Zoo and Wild Animal Health, Copenhagen Zoo, Frederiksberg, Denmark
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Ilia Rodushkin

Luleå tekniska universitet; Geovetenskap och miljöteknik; ALS Scandinavia AB
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Jon M. Arnemo

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology, Agricultural Sciences and Biotechnology, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Forest S
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