Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq

Document identifier:
Access full text here:10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100276
Keyword: Engineering and Technology, Teknik och teknologier, Civil Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Geoteknik, Vulnerability, VLDA, COP, Halabja-Saidsadiq basin (HSB), Iraq, Soil Mechanics
Publication year: 2020
Relevant Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):
SDG 6 Clean water and sanitationSDG 11 Sustainable cities and communitiesSDG 2 Zero hunger
The SDG label(s) above have been assigned by


Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.


Twana Abdullah

Luleå tekniska universitet; Geoteknologi; Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq.
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Salahalddin Ali

Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq
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Nadhir Al-Ansari

Luleå tekniska universitet; Geoteknologi; Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq
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Sven Knutsson

Luleå tekniska universitet; Geoteknologi
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